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8年级上册英语语法和短语

时间:2019-05-23 来源:迈赫迈德网
 

  八年级,即原来的初级中学二年级(初二年级),2001年实施《义务课程标准》之后,为实现义务教育的连续性,初二年级改称“八年级”。下面是学习啦小编给大家整理的8年级上册英语语法和短语,供大家参阅!

  8年级上册英语语法和短语:Unit 1

  Unit 1 Where did you go on vacation?

  本单元的话题:谈论假期活动内容,复习一般过去时。

  本单元的语法:

  1.复习一般过去时;

  2.学习不定代词和不定副词的用法。

  语法:

  1.本单元出现的动词不规则过去式有:

  is\am---was是 are -- were是 go---went去 buy—bought买 take ---took拿走, do\does—did feed—fed喂 see—saw 看见 eat—ate 吃 have\has—had 有,吃

  feel—felt感觉 ride—rode骑 get—got到达,得到can—could能,会forget—forgot忘记drink—drank喝 find—found找到

  2.不定代词和不定副词的用法:

  some body

  any one

  every thing no where(疑问副词)

  不定代词和不定副词

  (1)左边的some、any、every、no与右边的body、one、thing构成不定代词,some、any、every、no与右边的疑问副词where构成不定副词;

  (2)一般情况下以some开头的不定代词和不定副词用于肯定句,以any开头的不定代词和不定副词用于否定句、疑问句;以no开头的不定代词和不定副词表示否定含义(no one为两个单词);

  (3)不定代词或不定副词和形容词连用时,形容词放在后面。

  He has something他有重要的事情要做。(肯定句用something,形容词important放后) Did you buy (一般疑问句用anything,形容词special放后)

  Did you go anywhere上个月你去令人感兴趣的地方了吗?

  (interesting放后)

  (4)不定代词和不定副词做主语时,后面的动词用单数形式。Everone is here today.今天每个人都在这里。

  本单元的短语和知识点:

  1.(P1,图片) go on vacation去度假 go to the mountains 上山/进山

  2.(P1,1a) stay at home呆在家go to the beach去海滩 visit museums 参观博物馆 go to summer camp去参观夏令营

  3.(P2,2b) study for tests为考试而学习\备考 go out出去

  4.(P2,2d) quite a few相当多,不少(后跟可数名词复数)

  He has quite a few friends.他有不少朋友。take photos照相 most of the time大部分时间

  5.(P3,语法表格3行) buy sth for sb = buy sb sth为某人买某物 My mother bought me a sweater=My mother bought a sweater for me.我妈妈给我买了一件毛衣。

  6.(P3,语法表格4行) taste good. 尝起来很好

  taste(尝起来)、look(看起来)、sound(听起来)为感官动词,后跟形容词

  The food tastes delicious.这食品尝起来非常可口。

  The T-shirt looks beautiful.这件体恤衫看起来很漂亮。

  The songs sound beautiful.这些歌曲听起来很优美。

  7.(P3,语法表格5行)have a good\great\fun time过得高兴,玩得愉快(=enjoy oneself)

  They had a good time yesterday.= They enjoyed themselves yesterday.他们昨天玩得很开心。

  8.(P3,3a) go shopping去购物

  9.(P3,3b,4行) nothing„but+动词原形:除了„„之外什么都没有

  He had nothing to do at home but read yesterday.昨天他在家除了读书无事可做。

  10.(P3,3b,5行) seem to do sth:好像„ I seem to know him.我好像认识他。

  seem+(to be)+形容词:看起来„The work seems(to be)easy.这工作看起来很容易。

  11.(P3,3c)keep a diary记日记

  12.(P5,2b,1行大地方:达到某地 (get to +地方:达到某地)

  小地方:达到某地 (get的过去式为got)

  He arrived in Beijing yesterday.他昨天达到北京。

  若是arrive和ge后跟home、there、here三个地点副词,后面的介词in\at\to必须去掉。

  昨晚汤姆到家。

  )decide to do sth:决定做某事他决定回家。

  14.(P5,2b,3行) try doing sth.尝试做某事try to do sth.尽力去做某事

  The boy tried riding bicycle.这个小孩试着骑自行车

  He tried to help the old man.他尽力帮助这个老年人。

  15.(P5,2b,4行) feel like给„的感觉;感受到

  16.(P5,2b,1段末行) in the past 在过去 walk around四处走走荆门儿童羊羔疯专科医院p>

  enjoy doing sth:喜欢做某事He enjoys playing basketball.他喜欢打篮球。

  17.(P5,2b,2段1行)difference(名词,差异,差别)---- different(形容词,不同的)

  18.(P5,2b,2段2行)start doing sth:开始做某事 (= start to do sth)

  He started doing his homework. 他开始做家庭作业。

  19.(P5,2b,2段3行)over an hour一个多小时 (over超过,多余 = more than)

  20.(P5,2b,2段4行) too many 太多,后接可数名词复数。

  Mother bought too many eggs yesterday.昨天妈妈买了很多鸡蛋。

  too much 太多,后跟不可数名词,修饰动词作状语。

  我们有很多工作要做。 Don’t talk too much.不要说太多。

  much too 太,后跟形容词或副词这帽子对我来说太大。 你走地太快了。

  分辨三者的口诀:用法区别看后头:much 后接不可数,too 后修饰形或副。too many 要记住,后面名词必复数。

  21.(P5,2b,2段6行) because of 因为,

  because因为,后跟句子。

  He can’t go to school because of the rain.他因为下雨没去上学。(rain为名词)

  He was late for school because of他因为起晚而上学迟到。(get为动词)

  = He was late for school becauseI don’t buy the shirt because it was too expensive.我没有买这件衬衣因为它太贵。

  22.(P5,2b,2段8行)enough(足够的)与名词连用,一般放在名词前

  他有足够的钱。(money为名词)

  enough(足够的enough放在后面。

  为形容词)

  23.(倒数4忘记已经做过某事(已经做完)

  to do sth.忘记去做某事(还未做)(forget的过去式为forgot)

  Don’t foget to close the door.不要忘记关上门。(门还未关)

  He forgot closing the door.他忘记已经关上门了。(门已经关上,但是他忘了)

  24.(P6,2e,5行)another+数字+可数名词单数或复数:额外多少某物

  He ate one apple,he wanted another two apples.他吃了一个苹果,还想再要两个。

  25.(P8,self check,2,6行)so+形容词+that+句子:如此„以至于„

  too+形容词+to do sth:太„以至于不能„

  形容词+enough to do sth:足够„能够做某事(注意三个句型有时可以互换)

  He is so young that he can′t go to school.他如此年轻以至于不能去上学。

  = He is too young to go to school. 他太年轻以至于不能去上学。

  = He isn′t old enough to go to school.

  26.(P8,self check,2,7行)tell sb (not) to do sth:告诉某人(不要)做某事

  My mother often tells us not to play in the street.我的妈妈经常告诉我不要在街上玩。

  8年级上册英语语法和短语:Unit 2

  Unit 2 How often do you exercise?

  本单元的话题:谈论生活习惯,复习一般现在时。

  本单元的语法:1.复习一般现在时;2.学习表示频率副词的用法。

  主要频率副词的等级排序:always(总是) > usually (通常) > often(经常) > sometimes(有时) > hardly ever(很少) > never(从不)

  这些副词在句子中的位置,一般放在助动词、be动词或情态动词之后,行为动词之前。即:“行”前“助(系)”后。 Peter is always late for school. Peter上学总是迟到。

  I usually do my homework in the evening. 我通常在晚上做作业。

  提问 always, sometimes, twice a day 等频率副词,用 How often I watch TV every day.我每天都看电视→How often do you watch TV?(你多长时间看一次电视?)

  本单元的短语和知识点:

  1.(P9,图片、1a) on weekends在周末 go to the movies去看电影help with housework帮助做家务 how often多久一次 hardly ever几乎从不

  2.(P10,2a至2d) 2a:once a week每周一次 twice a week每周两次 every day每天 2c:use the Internet用互联网

  2d: be free有空Are you free on weekends?你周末有空吗?

  swing dance摇摆舞 have dance and piano lessons上舞蹈和钢琴课 play tennis打网球

  How about„? „怎么样?/ „好不好?(后跟名词\代词\V ing)(用来提出意见或征求对方建议)

  I like apples,how about you ?我喜欢苹果,你呢?(apple,名词,苹果)(how about =what about) How about going shopping this afterno请问轻微的癫痫手术治疗大概多少钱?on?今天下午去购物怎么样?(go为动词)

  3.(P11,语法表格)go shopping购物

  4.(P11,3a) stay up late熬夜at least至少go to bed early早点睡觉play sports进行体育活动

  5.(P11,3b)after school 放学后

  6.(P12,1b)want sth:需要某物 He wants a new pen.他想要一支新钢笔。

  want to do sth:想做某事 He wants to watch TV after school.放学后他想去看电视。

  want sb to do sth:让某人做某事 My mother wants me get up early.妈妈让我早起。

  7.(P12,1b)be good for对„„有好处 be bad for 对„„有害处

  Swimming is good for our health.游泳对我们的健康有好处。

  Watching TV is bad for our eyes.看电视对我们的眼睛有害处。

  8. (P13,2a) play computer games打电子游戏 go camping去野营

  9.(P13,2b,1行)ask sb about sth:问某人某事

  My parents often ask me about my study.我的父母经常问我的学习情况。

  10. (P13,2b,1段1行)in one’s spare time在某人业余时间

  He studies English in his spare time.他在业余时间学习英语。

  11.(P13,2b)”数字+percent of+名词”做主语时,后面的单词取决于名词的情况。若名词为复数,后面的动词用复数形式;若名词为单数或不可数名词,后面的动词用单数形式。

  In our class ,twenty of students are boys.在我们班,百分之二十的学生为男生。

  Thirty of water is dirty.百分之三十的水是脏的。

  12.(P13,2b,2段3行)not„at all:一点儿也不 (not构成否定句)

  I don’t like the movie at all.我一点也不喜欢这部电影。

  13.(P13,2b,3段)go online上网

  14.(P13,2b,3段)the answer to+名词:„的答案 the answer to the question这个问题的答案

  15.(P13,2b,4段) the most popular最受欢迎的

  although(虽然)不能与but连用,但可以与yet ,still 连用。

  Although it is dark ,they are still working.虽然天黑了,但他们仍在工作。

  Although he is old ,he is quite strong.他虽然年龄大了,但身体很健壮。

  16.(P13,2b,5段1行)the (best) way to do sth: 做某事的(最好)方式

  The best way to learn English is speaking English.学习英语的最好方法是说英语.

  17.(P13,2b,5段2行) such as比如 (后跟名词或名词短语)for example 例如(后跟句子) He likes fruits,such as apples,bananas and so on.他喜欢水果,例如苹果、香蕉等。

  He has some good ways to study English,for example ,he often listens to tapes.他有许多好的方法学习英语,例如,他经常听磁带。

  18.(P13,2b,5段4行) old habits die hard积习难改。

  19.(P15,3a)more than (=over)超过,多余 go to the dentist去看牙医

  8年级上册英语语法和短语:Unit 3

  Unit 3 I'm more outgoing than my sister.

  本单元的话题:谈论事物对比,学习形容词比较级。

  本单元的语法:学习形容词比较级。(语法:见课本第113页至115页)

  本单元出现的形容词和副词的比较级有:

  long—longer(长的),tall--taller(高的)fast—faster(更快),funny—funnier(更有趣)

  friendly—friendlier(更友好),early—earlier(更早),lazy—lazier(更懒惰), high—higher(更高), hard—harder(更努力) ,quiet—quieter(更安静,更内向),

  smart—smarter(更聪明)loud —louder(更响亮),good\well--better (更好) many\much—more (更多),popular—more popular(更受欢迎)loudly—more loudly(更响亮) outgoing--more outgoing(更外向/更开朗), hard-working—more hard-working(更努力)clearly—more clearly(更清楚)serious—more serious(更严肃)

  形容词和副词的比较级讲解:

  1.比较级表示两个人或物的比较。所用的句型为“比较级+than”(比„更„),若than前后所使用的的动词相同时,通常用助动词代替后面的动词,后面的动词或助动词可以省略。注意比较的对象必须性质相同。I am taller than my brother.我比我的弟弟高。

  He is more outgoing than me.他比我外向。

  2.比较级前,可以用much(更„,多得多„),a lot(更„,多得多„),even(更„,多得多„),a little(稍微)来表示程度。I am a little thinner than my sister精神运动性癫痫治疗方法有什么.我比我的妹妹稍微瘦。 She is much more beautiful than her sister.她比她的妹妹更漂亮。

  本单元的短语和知识点:

  1.(P17,图片)play+the +乐器 play the drums打鼓

  比较play +球类 play basketball打篮球

  both„and„两者都(后面的动词用复数形式)Both Tom and Jim are students. 汤姆和吉姆都是学生。

  2.(P18,2d) the singing competition 歌咏比赛 the most important 最重要的

  3.(P20,1a)be good at+名词\代词\V ing:擅长,在某方面做得好

  He is good at math.他擅长数学(math为名词)I am good at playing basketball.我擅长打篮球。(play为动词)

  4.(P20,1a)make sb do sth:让某人做某事He makes me help him.他让我帮助他。

  5.(P20,1b)the same as与„相同His book is the same as my book.他的书与我的书一样。

  6. (P20,1b)be talented in sth:在某方面有天赋He is talented in music.他在音乐方面有天赋。

  7.(P21,2b,1段2行)be like:像„ The books are like friends.书像朋友。

  8.(P21,2b,1段)make friends (with sb):(和某人)交朋友

  He often makes friends with children.他经常和孩子们交朋友.

  enjoy doing sth:喜欢做某事 Tom enjoys reading.汤姆喜欢读书。

  9.(P21,2b,2段)be different from与„不同My brother is different from me.我弟弟与我不一样。

  10.(P21,2b,2段)help sb to (do) sth:帮助某人做某事

  常与help sb with sth(在某方面帮助某人)互换 He often helps me (to) learn English.他经常帮助我学习英语。= He often helps me with my English.他经常在英语方面帮助我。 help (to) do sth:帮助做某事He often helps( to)cook at home.他经常在家帮助做饭。

  11.(P21,2b,3段)care about关心

  My parents often care about my study.我的父母亲经常关心我的学习.

  12.(P22,2d)比较级表示最高级常用:

  比较级 +than +the other+可数名词复数

  =比较级+than +any other+可数名词单数(用于一范围内一个与余下进行比较) 例如: He is the tallest student in our class .(最高级)在我们班他是最高的学生。

  = He is taller than any other student in our class.

  = He is taller than the other students in our class.在我们班,他比其他的学生高。

  (在我们班,他与他之外的其他的同学进行比较)

  shanghai is the biggest city in china.上海是中国最大的城市。

  13.(P24,4)be good with sb:与某人相处很好

  The teacher is good with students.这位老师与学生相处很好。

  14.(P24,4)information (n.消息,信息)不可数名词

  8年级上册英语语法和短语:Unit 4

  Unit 4 What's the best movie theater?

  本单元的话题:谈论事物对比, 学习形容词和副词的最高级。

  本单元的语法:学习形容词和副词的最高级。

  1.形容词和副词的最高级常用于表示三者或三者以上进行比较,后面可用of或in短语表示比较的范围。He is the tallest in his class.在他那个班,他是最高的。

  Tom studies (the) best of the three students.在这三个学生中汤姆学习最好

  2.形容词和副词的最高级前常常有the(副词的最高级前的the可以省略),例如:

  He is the tallest student in our class.在我们班他是最高的学生。(tall为形容词,the不能省) 汤姆在他那个学校跑得最快。(fast为副词修饰动词run,the可以省略)

  Tom runs (the) fastest in his school.

  3.比较级也可以表示最高级的含义,见Unit3,12讲解。

  本单元出现的形容词和副词的最高级有:

  good(好)—best,bad\badly(坏的)—worst,frest(新鲜的)—frestest, big(大)—biggest fast(快的)--fastest new(新的)—newest cheap(便宜的)—cheapest funny(有趣的)- funniest close(近的)—closest short(矮的)—shortest quiet(安静的,内向的)—quietest expensive(昂贵的)—most expensive,popular(受欢迎的)—most popular,quikcly(快地)—most quikcly beautiful(美丽的)—most beautiful, comefortable(舒服的)—most comefortable cheaply(便宜地)—most cheaply carefully(仔细地,细心地)—most carefully boring(无聊的)—most boring exc老年癫痫病患者可以手术治疗吗iting(令人兴奋的)—most exciting interesting(令人感兴趣的)—most interesting serious(严肃的,认真的)—most serious creative(有创造力的)—most creative, talented(有天赋的)—most talented

  本单元的短语和知识点:

  1.(P26,2d,2行)welcome to+地点:欢迎来到某地 Welcome to our school.欢迎来我校。

  2.(P27语法表)What do you think of sth?=How dou you like sth?你认为...怎么样?

  What do you think of the book?你认为这本书怎么样? It is boring.很无聊。

  3.(P29,2b,1段2行)watch sb do sth:看见某人做了某事(= see sb do sth )

  I watched him play basketball yesterday.昨天我看见他打篮球了。

  4.(P29,2b,1段3行)比较级别 +and+比较级:越来越„

  (若比较级为more+形容词原级,则为:more and more形容词原级)

  The buildings are taller and taller.楼房越来越高。

  Our school is getting more and more beautiful.我们的学校正在变得越来越漂亮。

  5.(P29,2b,1段末行)around the world全世界=all over the world,such as 例如

  8年级上册英语语法和短语:Unit 5

  Unit 5 Do you want to watch a game show?

  本单元的话题:谈论自己对天使节目或电影的喜好,学会表达自己的感受。

  本单元的语法:复习一般现在时。

  本单元的短语和知识点:

  1.(P33,图片) What do you think of sth?=How dou you like sth?你认为„怎么样? What do you think of the movie?你认为这部电影怎么样? It is boring.很无聊。

  2.(P33,图片)(补充)mind doing sth:介意做某事

  Would you mind opening the door?你介意打开门吗?Of course not.当然不介意。

  3.(P33,1a) news (不可数名词,消息,信息) a piece of good news一条好消息

  4.(P34,2b,2行)learn (sth) from sb:向某人学习(某物)

  We is learning English from the teacher.我们正在向这位老师学习英语。

  5.(P34,2c,1行)plan to do sth:计划做某事(plan的过去式planned,现在分词planning) He is planning to visit Beijing.他正在计划访问北京。

  6.(P34,2c,4行)hope to do sth:希望做某事

  He hopes to meet the famous singer.他希望与这位著名歌手的见面。

  7.(P34,2d,2行)have a discussion (about sth):讨论(某物)

  They had a discussion about the movie yesterday昨天他们讨论了这部电影。

  8.(P34,2d,倒数5行)favorite (形容词,最喜爱的)= like„best

  My favorite shows are talk shows.我最喜欢的节目是谈话节目。=I like talk shows best.

  9.(P34,2d,倒数2行)expect to do sth:期待做某事

  The girl alaways expects to meet her favorite actor.这个女孩总是期待与他最喜欢的演员见面。

  10.(P37,2b,1段2行)think of认为,想起He often thinks of his teachers.他经常想起他的老师。

  11.(P37,2b,1段倒数2行)in the 1930s:在二十世纪三十年代(1930年至1939年)

  in the 2010s:在二十一世纪10年代(2010年至2019年)

  12.(P37,2b,2段2行)one of +可数名词复数:„之一(该短语放在句首做主语时,后面的动词用单数形式)One of the students has an English dictionary.这些学生中一个人有英语字典。

  13.(P37,2b,2段3行)try to do sth:尽力做某事He tried to help the old man.他尽力帮助这老人。 try doing sth:试着做某事The boy tried riding a bicycle.这个孩子试着骑自行车。

  14.(P37,2b,2段3行)luck(名词,幸运,运气)—lucky(形容词,幸运的)--unlucky (形容词,不幸的)

  15.(P37,2b,2段5行)be ready to do sth乐意做某事

  He is always ready to help others.他总是乐于助人。

  16.(P37,2b,2段5行)try one's best (to do sth):尽力(做某事)

  He often tries his best to help me.他总是尽力帮助我。

  17.(P39,3a,3行)take one’s place:代替,替换 (take的过去式为took)

  Our English teacher wasn't at school,Mr. Wang took her place to teach us English.我们英语老师不在学校,王老师代替她教我们英语。

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